Circus Offers Cambodian Youth a Better Life  扭轉人生的馬戲團學校


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2016/01/12 第245期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱


優惠活動訊息:見訊息
   

Circus Offers Cambodian Youth a Better Life  扭轉人生的馬戲團學校

by Brian Foden

The National Circus School of Cambodia arose shortly after a terrifying and brutal period in the nation’s history.
柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校在經歷該國歷史上那段可怕又殘酷的時期後隨即崛起。

  When the National Circus School of Cambodia opened in 1980, the Southeast Asian nation was desperately trying to recover from the savage brutality of the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge, under its _(1)_ dictator, Pol Pot, ruled Cambodia from 1975 until 1979. During that time, up to three million Cambodians were killed _(2)_ the actions taken by the dictatorship. In fact, most of the students in the National Circus School of Cambodia were orphans _(3)_ parents had died under the Khmer Rouge regime. Initially, the circus students were taught acrobatics by Vietnamese and Russian teachers, and 10 of the pupils were selected to receive more training in the Soviet Union. Eventually, some students were also chosen to be trained in China, Vietnam, and France. Vietnam continues to offer support to the school, _(4)_ a large circus tent with seats for 1,000 people in 2012.
  Since it began operation 35 years ago, the National Circus School of Cambodia has given numerous Cambodian youngsters a _(5)_ of having a better life than they otherwise would have. Prior to _(6)_ to the school, some children were forced to collect recyclable garbage from the streets for the purpose of having enough money to pay for their food. In addition to the school, there is an acrobatic troupe that performs _(7)_ a regular basis. The troupe has gained a lot of fame and popularity in the country and internationally, appearing on a variety of television shows, including Cambodia’s Got Talent.

1. (A) murderous  (B) virtuous  (C) contagious  (D) scandalous
2. (A) in the vicinity of  (B) for the sake of  (C) as a result of (D) on behalf of
3. (A) whom  (B) whose  (C) when  (D) where
4. (A) to provide  (B) provides  (C) provided  (D) providing
5. (A) series  (B) means  (C) species  (D) remains
6. (A) being admitted  (B) be admitted  (C) admitting  (D) admit
7. (A) with  (B) in  (C) on  (D) at

 
  1. The Khmer Rouge, under its murderous dictator, Pol Pot, ruled Cambodia from 1975 until 1979.
    赤棉在其凶殘獨裁者波布的領導下,從 1975 年統治柬埔寨直到 1979 年。
    理由:
    a. (A) murderous a. 凶殘的
    The stranger in a dark alley gave me a murderous look while I was walking by.
    這名暗巷裡的陌生人在我經過時惡狠狠地瞪了我一眼。
    (B) virtuous a. 正直的;有道德的
    同: righteous a.
    The statesman led a virtuous life.
    這位政治家過著清高的生活。
    *statesman n. 政治家
    (C) contagious a. 有傳染性的
    Patients with SARS should be quarantined because it is a contagious disease.
    嚴重急性呼吸症候群的患者須被隔離,因為這種疾病具傳染性。
    *quarantine vt. 使隔離
    (D) scandalous a. 令人憤慨的
    It is scandalous that you still have not been paid.
    你還沒拿到工資,這太不像話了。
    b. 根據語意,(A) 項應為正選。
  2. During that time, up to three million Cambodians were killed as a result of the actions taken by the dictatorship.
    那段期間,由於獨裁政府所採取的行動,高達三百萬的柬埔寨人民遭到殺害。
    理由:
    a. (A) in the vicinity of…  在……的附近
    vicinity n. 附近地區;鄰近
    In the vicinity of the Buddhist statue are a temple and a vegetarian restaurant.
    那尊大佛像附近有一座廟和一間素食餐廳。
    (B) for the sake of…  為了……的緣故
    sake n. 理由,緣故
    For the sake of your health, you should break the habit of smoking immediately.
    為你的健康著想,你應立刻戒掉抽菸的習慣。
    (C) as a result of…  由於……
    同: on account of…
    = because of…
    Most flights will be canceled as a result of the typhoon.
    因為颱風,大多數的班機將停飛。
    (D) on behalf of…  代表……
    behalf n. 代表
    The producer accepted the Academy Award on behalf of the absent director.
    該製作人代表未到現場的導演領取那座奧斯卡金像獎。
    b. 根據語意及用法,(C) 項應為正選。
  3. In fact, most of the students in the National Circus School of Cambodia were orphans whose parents had died under the Khmer Rouge regime.
    事實上,大多數在柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校的學員都是孤兒,他們的父母皆在赤棉的獨裁政權統治下喪生。
    理由:
    a. 空格前為一完整子句,得知空格應置關係詞,以引導形容詞子句,修飾先行詞 orphans(孤兒)。
    b. 由於空格後已有主詞 parents(父母)以及動詞 had died(喪生),得知空格內應置關係代名詞所有格 whose,故 (B) 項應為正選。
    c. whose(關係代名詞所有格)的使用原則:
    1. 之前應有先行詞(即被代替的名詞)。
    2. whose 之後的名詞在 whose 所引導的形容詞子句應作主詞或受詞。
    3. 否則之前應有介詞,而該介詞亦可置於形容詞子句句尾。
    I know Bob, whose daughter used to work with my son.
    我認識鮑伯,他女兒曾和我兒子共事過。
    I don’t like Ed, in whose words I have no trust.
    = I don’t like Ed, whose words I have no trust in.
    我不喜歡艾德,他的話我都不相信。
    d. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。
  4. Vietnam continues to offer support to the school, providing a large circus tent with seats for 1,000 people in 2012.
    越南持續給予該校支持,並於 2012 年提供一個能容納一千人座位的大馬戲團帳篷。
    理由:
    a. 原句實為:
    Vietnam continues to offer support to the school and provides a large circus tent…
    一句中有兩個動詞存在,彼此一定要有連接詞相連;若兩個動詞之間有逗點相隔而無連接詞時,第二個動詞就要變成現在分詞。
    Sandy ran out of the room, looking as if she were late for work.
    珊蒂衝出房間,看起來像是上班要遲到了。
    b. 根據上述用法,(D) 項應為正選。
  5. … the National Circus School of Cambodia has given numerous Cambodian youngsters a means of having a better life than they otherwise would have.
    ……柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校已給予眾多柬埔寨年輕人一種比他們原來可能過的生活還要更好的生活方式。
    理由:
    a. (A) series n. 系列(單複數同形)
    I have a series of textbooks to study for my finals.
    為了準備期末考,我有一系列的書要看。
    (B) means n. 方法;手段(單複數同形)
    衍: by means of…  藉由……方法/手段
    The manager is trying to increase the company’s profit by means of direct selling.
    經理嘗試用直銷來提升公司營收。
    (C) species n. 物種(單複數同形)
    The scientist discovered a rare species of lizard in the jungle.
    這名科學家在叢林裡發現一種稀有品種的蜥蜴。
    (D) remains n. 遺跡;遺體(恆為複數)
    The remains of the saint are said to be buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral.
    這名聖人的遺體據說被安葬在聖派翠克大教堂裡。
    *cathedral n. 大教堂
    b. 根據語意,(B) 項應為正選。
  6. Prior to being admitted to the school, some children were forced to collect recyclable garbage from the streets for the purpose of having enough money to pay for their food.
    在被該校錄取之前,有些孩子不得不去收集街道上可回收的垃圾,以便有足夠的錢購買他們的食物。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    prior to N/V-ing  (時間)在……之前
    同: before…
    You must not eat anything for 12 hours prior to your medical checkup.
    在進行健康檢查前,你必須禁食十二個小時。
    I found a new job prior to quitting my old one.
    我在辭掉舊工作前就找到新工作了。
    b. 選項中為名詞或動名詞的有 (A) being admitted(被錄取)及 (C) admitting(承認),由於 admit 是及物動詞,故 admitting 之後應有受詞,否則就應採被動語態,因此 (C) 項不可選。根據上述,(A) 項應為正選。
  7. In addition to the school, there is an acrobatic troupe that performs on a regular basis.
    除了馬戲團學校之外,還有一個定期演出的雜技劇團。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    on a regular basis  定期地,固定地
    同: regularly adv.
    At his wife’s insistence, Frank started to go to the gym on a regular basis.
    在妻子的堅持之下,法蘭克開始定期上健身房。
    *at sb’s insistence  在某人堅持下
    b. 根據上述用法,(C) 項應為正選。
  1. circus n. 馬戲團;鬧哄哄的場面
    The first day of school is always such a circus.
    開學的第一天總是這樣鬧哄哄的。
  2. brutal a. 殘酷的;不人道的
    The serial killer was sentenced to life imprisonment for the brutal murder of five little girls.
    這名連續殺人魔因為殘忍地殺害五名小女童而被判無期徒刑。
    *life imprisonment   無期徒刑
    The government was accused of brutal treatment of political prisoners.
    該政府被指控以不人道的方式對待政治犯。
    *be accused of…  被指控??
  3. desperately adv. 拼命地;迫切地
    衍: desperate a. 極為渴望的
    Farmers desperately expected a period of rain that would end the drought.
    農夫們迫切期待天降甘霖以終止這場乾旱。
    John is so desperate to win the election that he will do anything.
    約翰極為渴望贏得選舉,因此他會不顧一切運用任何手段。
  4. savage a. 凶殘的 & n. 野蠻人
    Cannibalism is considered savage behavior.
    食人被視為是野蠻的行為。
    *cannibalism n. 食人;同類相食
    Joey is rude and mean. He is not unlike a savage.
    阿喬粗魯,心腸也很壞。他與野蠻人沒兩樣。
  5. brutality n. 殘忍,凶殘
    The public was appalled at the brutality of the recent crime in their town.
    民眾對最近鎮上的一樁凶殘罪行感到驚駭萬分。
    *appall vt. 使驚駭
  6. orphan n. 孤兒
    衍: orphanage n. 孤兒院
    The sight of the orphan always reminds me of Jason’s misery.
    看到這個孤兒總會讓我想起傑森的悲慘。
    Robin’s parents died in an accident, so he was raised in an orphanage.
    羅賓的父母親死於一場意外,因此他是在孤兒院裡長大的。
  7. otherwise adv. 本來應當會……,不然可能會……;否則
    The lifeguard’s quick reaction saved the girl who would otherwise have drowned.
    救生員迅速的反應救了那個原本可能會溺斃的女孩。
    You’d better come back early; otherwise, you will miss dinner.
    你最好早點回家;否則你就會錯過晚餐。
  8. recyclable a. 可回收的
    衍: recycle vt. 回收(資源)再利用
    The company claims that 90 percent of their auto spare parts are recyclable.
    該公司宣稱他們汽車百分之九十的備用零件可再回收利用。
    Many daily commodities such as empty bottles and cans can be recycled.
    許多像是空瓶罐等日用品均可回收利用。
    *commodity n. 日用品(常用複數)

Cambodian a. 柬埔寨的 & n. 柬埔寨人;柬埔寨語
衍: Cambodia n. 柬埔寨(東南亞國家)
dictatorship n. 獨裁政權
衍: dictator n. 獨裁者
tyrant n. 暴君
regime n. 政權,政體
acrobatics n. 雜技表演
衍: acrobatic a. 雜技的
troupe n. 劇團,演出團,歌舞團

  1. recover from…  從……恢復過來/復元
    同: get over…
    John recovered from his illness shortly after taking the medicine.
    約翰吃了藥不久,他的病就復元了。
  2. for the purpose of V-ing  為了……
    同: in order to V
    Emma bought a new dress for the purpose of wearing it to her interview.
    艾瑪為了面試而買了一件新洋裝。


扭轉人生的馬戲團學校
  柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校在經歷該國歷史上那段可怕又殘酷的時期後隨即崛起。
柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校於 1980 年開校之際,這個東南亞國家竭力想從赤棉(編按:又稱赤柬,此為政治術語,由施亞努親王於 1960 年代所創,意指柬埔寨共產黨及其追隨者。)的野蠻暴行中復甦過來。赤棉在其凶殘獨裁者波布的領導下,從 1975 年統治柬埔寨直到 1979 年。那段期間,由於獨裁政府所採取的行動,高達三百萬的柬埔寨人民遭到殺害。事實上,大多數在柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校的學員都是孤兒,他們的父母皆在赤棉的獨裁政權統治下喪生。起初,馬戲團學員由越南籍和俄羅斯籍的老師教導雜技,且有十名學員被選中前往蘇聯接受更多的培訓。到最後,部份學生也被選中前往中國、越南和法國受訓。越南持續給予該校支持,並於 2012 年提供一個能容納一千人座位的大馬戲團帳篷。
  自三十五年前營運以來,柬埔寨國家馬戲團學校已給予眾多柬埔寨年輕人一種比他們原來可能過的生活還要更好的生活方式。在被該校錄取之前,有些孩子不得不去收集街道上可回收的垃圾,以便有足夠的錢購買他們的食物。除了馬戲團學校之外,還有一個定期演出的雜技劇團。該劇團在國內外已經獲得廣大名氣及知名度,在包括《柬埔寨達人秀》等的各類電視節目上皆曾亮相。
答案: 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. C

 
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